The targeted groups for the analysis of osteoporosis include postmenopausal females and males with the age >50 without any prior osteoporosis-related fragility fractures or any secondary causes of osteoporosis e.g; users of corticosteroids, transplant recipients, cancer patients, etc.
Goals and objectives of the program
Purpose of the program: Osteoporosis is associated with a lack of calcium levels in the bones of an individual, which causes them to break (crack). The purpose of this fitness plan is to educate people to adopt a healthy lifestyle and exercising programs to prevent the risk of osteoporosis from occurring and if occurred then to provide them with a fitness program to treat their osteoporosis and prevent it from getting worse.
Goals to be achieved: Prevent bone loss, prevent the risk of fracture, manage and control pain, prevent disability.
For this purpose, the client should have the following done.
- Screening: For identifying if the person has osteoporosis or have any chances of getting it shortly in the future?
- Education: Educating people about prevention measures to prevent ourselves from getting osteoporosis or learn to treat it by exercise protocols and lifestyle improvements.
- Exercise program: To live healthily without osteoporosis.
Objectives of the Program: The client/ patient should be able to recover himself from the disease and to prevent it from getting worse with the help of this fitness program created by your Physical Therapist.
Develop the intervention
Screening: For bone measuring test is Central DXA, Peripheral DXA, and Quantitative ultrasound(QUS).
Education: Knowledge for the people about the causes, symptoms, prevention, and treatment should be given through brochures, flyers, and classes to address people bout this disease.
Exercise program: Following is the exercise program for patients with osteoporosis
- Weight-bearing (low-impact) exercises (walking, dancing, or stair climbing) at least 3–5 times per week.
- Resistance exercises (free weights, resistance bands, or exercise machines) 2–3 times per week.
- Postural exercises to stretch tight muscles, improve posture, and strengthen back muscles several times a day.
- Balance exercises to improve equilibrium, increase muscle strength, and reduce falls daily.
NOTE: The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends individuals speak with a knowledgeable physician about their fracture risk before starting any exercise program.
- Encourage clients to bend from the hips and knees (not the waist) and sit without slouching.
- Encourage brisk walking with a warm-up and cool down.
- Biking and swimming exercises, although aerobic, are not weight-bearing. Encourage clients who bike or swim to add weight-bearing and resistance exercises.
- Everyday tasks such as lifting groceries, doing laundry, or vacuuming can be harmful if not done properly. Teach clients good posture and body mechanics
Implementation of the Intervention
Now after planning and making the program completely its time for implementing the program onto the participants/ patients for whom this program is made and record the following information about the baseline data of bone mineral density on the first day to compare it with the last day of treatment to assess for the progress.
Evaluation of the Results
Ø For an educational session, all participants will be asked to evaluate the program and consider an additional follow-up assessment.
Ø For an exercise class, the recorded baseline data will be assessed for the progress of the program during the program and at the end of the program.
Ø Participants will be asked to evaluate the program as if it was beneficial for them and did they felt and saw any improvement regarding their condition after finishing the program.
Ø Participants would be asked to give feedback on what could be done to improve the program e,g; different times, locations, the environment of the class, or longer sessions.